Analytic QM/MM atomic charge derivatives avoiding the scaling of coupled perturbed equations with the MM subsystem sizetextjournalArticleSchwinnKarnoautFerreNicolasautHuix-RotllantMiquelaut10.1063/1.5115125In electrostatic embedding mixed quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches, the QM charge distribution is polarized by the electrostatic interaction with the MM environment. Analytic derivatives of expectation values of operators are required to extract properties such as vibrational spectra. These derivatives usually require solving a set of coupled perturbed equations for each nucleus/atom in the system, thus becoming prohibitive when the MM subsystem contains thousands of atoms. In the context of Electrostatic Potential Fitting (ESPF) QM/MM, we can easily overcome this bottleneck by defining a set of auxiliary coupled perturbed equations called the Q-vector equations. The Q-vector method scales only with the size of the QM subsystem, producing an effective charge tensor that leads to the atomic charge derivative after contraction with the MM electrostatic potential gradient. As an example, we use the charge derivatives as an analysis tool to identify the most important chromophore-polarizing amino-acids in plant cryptochrome. This finding opens up the route of defining polarizable force fields and simulating vibrational spectroscopy using ESPF QM/MM electrostatic embedding at an affordable computational cost.WOS:000478625700057Web of Sciencejournal1514041102

JUL 28 2019continuingJournal of Chemical Physics